What do you think about new developments such as optical biopsy, or tests that look at gene expression patterns and allow physicians to see if stages 1 and 2 are likely to spread, new types of immunotherapy and targeted therapies etc?
The field has definitely changed dramatically, more so than any other field as we have gone from a situation where there was really no therapy that was effective, to now seeing therapies that can induce prolonged remission and even overall survival rates. As far as the gene expression profile, it is a huge advance, perhaps even replacing biopsy in the future. And with optical biopsy and dermatoscope use, the clinical diagnosis of melanoma has gotten much better.
How long ago would you say was the breakthrough?
I would say it began about five years ago. It’s really when things started to change, I guess with the introduction of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) – that was the big turning point.
How do you personally keep updated with news in melanoma treatment?
I would say conferences, congresses, symposiums, journal articles, Tumor Board. We have a Tumor Board at the hospital on a pretty regular basis, so all these things help us to keep up to date.
From your experience, how is the level of treatment in the US compared to other countries?
I think the level in the United States is high, I’d say it’s quite advanced. We definitively have access to many of the newer therapies.
And how is access to treatment for patients? Do most insurances cover melanoma treatment now?
If you are following NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network) guidelines, access is very good. It is harder to get access off-label.
What’s the part played by prevention in skin cancer?
I would say it’s the key. Prevention is better than treatment. So, especially if it’s about avoiding sunburn early on, that would be probably the most critical thing.
During the past 30 years have you noticed changes in patients’ attitudes and empowerment? Are patients more aware of conditions such as melanoma and therefore pay more attention to their own bodies, coming to you with questions?
I think people are more aware of it. Even younger people are more aware of the sun causing it, and even tanning salons, that are ‘a big thing’ in the United States and also a big campaign that has got more publicity recently.
How important is early detection for the treatment of melanoma?
It’s key. We talk about 3 things: prevention, early detection, and treatment. Prevention is the most important, so you don’t have the problem at all; early detection is vital because if you catch the melanoma before it’s reached a certain depth, then you don’t really need any other therapy; and then early treatment, for patients that are less fortunate.